absolute ranging

A form of ranging that indicates the starting and ending positions of a character-sequence range using two arithmetic expressions separated by a comma.

absolute value

The value of a number without reference to the positive or negative sign.

abstract class

A class that describes a contract of basic functionality that must be inherited and implemented to be used. An abstract class cannot be instantiated.

abstract method

A method that has a signature but does not have an implementation. An abstract method is, by default, a virtual method. Abstract methods can only be defined in an abstract class.

accelerator key

An accelerator key is one that becomes mapped to an application-specific command message when it is pressed. In UI Toolkit terms, an accelerator key is a key that is mapped to a Toolkit menu entry or an equivalent signal. Third-party ActiveX controls can also map keys as accelerators, which means that the keys trigger special events when pressed.


To locate and obtain data.

access key

A true key in a database file, which is used to specify relationships between files. Also see foreign key.

access level

In xfODBC, a number from 0 to 255 that determines who can access a table and how. Each table has an access level, as does each group. A user may view only those tables whose access level is equal to or lower than access level of the group to which the user belongs. Additionally, access levels determine whether data can be modified.

access method

A method of retrieving pieces of data (records) from a larger set of information (file).

access mode

The method (input, output, or update) by which data from a specified file or device is accessed.


The degree to which a class or its members can be accessed. Accessibility is primarily controlled by the PUBLIC, PROTECTED, and PRIVATE access modifiers.


The get and set methods of a property.


A specific instance of a routine.

activation character

A nonprinting character that affects READS input from a channel opened in terminal mode. The READS operation ends when either a standard record terminator (LF, VT, FF, ESC) or an activation character is encountered. Additional characters are defined by the ACCHR subroutine.

activation parameter

A parameter that is presented internally to a routine.

active routine

A routine that has been entered but not exited.


A set of technologies developed by Microsoft that provides the ability to develop active, executable objects for Windows applications and websites.

ActiveX automation

A way of integrating development tools and applications by enabling an application to make its functionality accessible to other applications or to control the exposed functionality of other applications.

ActiveX container

See container.

ActiveX control

An active, executable object that implements the ActiveX technologies and that enables you to provide interactive, multimedia effects in your application.

actual argument

An argument that is listed in a subroutine or function call.


An alternate name. In Synergy DBL, a name that represents a directory path or section of code. A directory alias expands to a complete directory path, which means you don’t have to type the entire path when prompted for a filename or a directory. An extension-specific alias expands to the syntax for a routine or to an entire method or processing loop. In Repository, an alternate name for a structure or field. Your repository can contain aliases for your Synergy DBL identifier names. In xfODBC, another name for a table or column (also called known as a correlation name).


All ASCII characters except the nonprintable characters that control
I/O devices (such as carriage return, line feed, and form feed).

alpha data

Any consecutive sequence of ASCII characters that can be treated as a unit of information.

alpha expression

An expression whose result is an alpha value.


The uppercase characters “A” through “Z” and the lowercase characters “a” through “z.”


Both numeric and alphabetic characters.


Application programming interface, which is a set of subroutines and functions used to communicate between different parts of a system. This is the level of the system that the application programmer uses. For example, UI Toolkit provides an API that can be called by a Synergy program; this API is the interface between the Synergy program and UI Toolkit.


A .NET class that represents an application domain, which is an isolated environment where applications are executed.

application code

A string of characters that you create and use to identify your application for License Manager. The application code may have a maximum of six alphanumeric characters. Each application that you want to secure with License Manager must have its own application code.

application container

The outermost window for a Toolkit application. Along with the application title bar (header), frame, menu bar, and footer, the application window owns all windows created for the application, including the application window, the information line, and any toolbars for the application. When the application container is moved or resized, the application window is automatically moved or resized.

application window

The window that owns all Synergy windows and lists created for the application. It is the area below the title bar and menu bar, above the information line, and inside of the outermost window border for the application and any toolbars for the application. In Composer, the Application window is the area in which you can design your user interface.


A variable or routine parameter passed to another routine via a subroutine, function, or method.

arithmetic operator

An operator that performs addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division.


A group of fields, with each field the same defined size and data type.

arrayed field

A field definition from the repository that represents a group of fields, each of the same size and data type. Arrayed fields can have between one and four dimensions.

arrive method

For an input field, a subroutine called to perform special processing before the field is processed. For a list, a subroutine called when highlighting an item.


A collection of all files required for a .NET executable or class library. An assembly is what results when Synergy .NET source files are compiled, and it can have the extension .exe or .dll.

assignment operator

The equal sign, because it assigns one operand to another.


In Synergy DBL, a characteristic of an object (for example, width is an attribute of a window), or a way of providing descriptive or behavioral information about your code. In Synergy .NET, attributes precede the item they are decorating and are enclosed in curly brackets ({}). All attributes are classes that inherit from System.Attribute.

In xfNetLink and xfServerPlus, a feature of Synergy DBL that enables you to automate the population and maintenance of the Synergy Method Catalog. There are two attributes, xfMethod and xfParameter, each of which has a number of properties, that are used to specify metadata about your Synergy routines.

In xfODBC and Repository, a characteristic of a repository structure that describes fields, keys, relations, tags, and redisplay formats.


A mode in which each SQL operation results in a transaction that is automatically committed after the statement is executed.


A DBL ISAM key that is automatically filled in by Synergy DBMS with the appropriate value. Supported autokey types are SEQUENCE, TIMESTAMP, and CTIMESTAMP (creation timestamp). They must be 8 bytes and defined as read-only. The corresponding data types are AutoSeq and AutoTime (used by both timestamps).

available license

Refers to a license that is configured in License Manager or when the 14-day evaluation period is in effect.


base class

See parent class.

binary operator

An operator that acts on two operands. See operator.

bind variable

In SQL Connection, a host variable used for sending data values to the database.


A method of grouping multiple main routines into one executable program.


The smallest unit of data that can be accessed.

bitwise operator

An operator that performs Boolean operations on the bits within integer operands.


A space.

blank strip

To remove all trailing blanks from a field, bringing the next field closer. ReportWriter enables you to specify a strip character to be displayed between the blank-stripped field and the field that follows it.


(binary large object) In SQL Connection, binary data that exceeds a database’s normal maximum column size for binary data.


A 512-byte unit of information that can be read or written one or more units at a time.

blocking factor

The number of blocks to be assigned to a file I/O buffer.


In a UI Toolkit application, the portion of the display screen between the menu bar and the information line. The screen body will contain all the application’s placed windows.

Boolean operator

A logical operator (OR, exclusive OR, AND, and NOT).


The outline of a window’s display area.

bounds checking

A feature of the Synergy debugger that identifies situations in which data is being stored into structures that are referenced beyond the “bounds” of their normal definition.


The encapsulation of a descriptor type or a value type into an object type so it can be used like an object.

bracketed array

See real array.

break field

A sort field on which a report break and possibly a page break is set in ReportWriter.

break summary line

A line in your ReportWriter report that contains the break description, the number of records printed in the break set, and, if one or more fields are being totaled, the word “total” and the subtotal amounts.


A debugger feature that interrupts program execution in debug mode and returns to the debugger prompt.


A storage area that temporarily holds data.


Eight bits. In ReportWriter, the smallest area of memory addressable by ReportWriter. One byte contains one character.


C Interface

A component of Synergy DBL that enables Synergy programs to access C language routines and vice versa.


Preprocessed data of limited lifetime to provide quicker access.

calculation field

In ReportWriter, a temporary field that describes a mathematical expression whose result will be stored in that field.

callback routine

An external routine that, when called, appropriates all processing control, including error processing. The calling program regains control only when the callback routine explicitly abdicates it. Note that callback routines are called asynchronously, which means that they can be called between statements in another routine.


A window’s caption is synonymous with its title. In a Windows environment, the application as a whole also has a caption, which can be modified with the UI Toolkit E_SECT routine.

cascaded IF statement

A series of IF-THEN-ELSE statements that have another IF-THEN-ELSE statement following the ELSE keyword.

cascading menu

Another name for a submenu. Cascading describes the effect that submenus create on your screen.

casting function

A function that enables data to be accessed as any valid data type, regardless of the actual data type with which it was declared.


An electronic ID card that establishes credentials or confirms identity when doing business or other transactions on the Web. You must have a digital certificate from a certificate authority to send encrypted messages.

certificate authority (CA)

A company that digitally creates and issues certificates. Examples are VeriSign and Thawte.


To pass control to another main routine. Chaining is performed by the STOP statement.

change method

The method (subroutine) that UI Toolkit calls after validating an input field.


A conduit for data transmission between a file or device and your program. In SQL Connection, a database connection control; each connection (log-in) is maintained by channel ID.

check box

An input field displayed as a small box with accompanying text to its right. When a check box is selected, an “x” is displayed in the box.

child class

See derived class.

child list

A list in a composite window. Child lists can be either ActiveX Toolkit lists or standard UI Toolkit lists.

child process

A subprocess that is created and executed by the parent (current) process. Once the child process is completed, it returns control to the parent process.

child window

A window within a composite window. Child windows can be any type of UI Toolkit window: an input window, an ActiveX container, another composite window, and so forth.


Any method of encrypting text.


A prototype for an object, or a named set of related data and functionality that works on that data. A class defines the variables and methods common to all objects in that class.


An ordered list of directories and JAR files that specifies the location of class files used by Java applications.

class member

A general term for any item that can be declared within a class declaration, such as a method, a field, a property, another nested class, and so forth.

class structure

A structure that is defined inside a class.


A computer hosting a client application, which is an application that requests services or access to data from another computer.

client area

The visible area within a window. This area does not include scroll bars, the information line, the footer, the title bar (header), or menu bars.

client/server system

A computer network in which one or more computers act as “clients,” requesting services or access to data, and one or more computers act as “servers,” processing the clients’ requests.

client-side cursor

(SQL Server concept) A cursor implemented on the client for a result set that’s cached on the client. The firehose cursor (though it’s not a true cursor) is the only client-side cursor for SQL Server.


(character large object) In SQL Connection, character data that exceeds a database’s normal maximum column size for character data.

closed routine

A self-contained routine that cannot be run independently from a main calling routine.


Common Language Runtime, the runtime environment for .NET Framework.


Common Language Specification. A set of basic language features required by .NET languages in order to develop applications that are compatible with .NET Framework.

CLS structure

A structure defined with the CLS modifier, which identifies it as a .NET value type structure.

coerced type

A non-default data type that the Synergy data type is converted to on the client side when using xfServerPlus and xfNetLink.


An ordered group of objects, which are referred to as the collection’s elements.

color palette

There are up to 16 combinations of foreground/background color that can be assigned to any UI Toolkit rendition. The entire set is called a palette, and an individual combination is called a palette code. You can change the colors assigned to a given palette code by setting the WNDC environment variable, or through the U_REND, U_MODREND, or U_EDITREND subroutines.


Used interchangeably with field in xfODBC. A system catalog column in xfODBC is equivalent to a repository field.


An enhanced version of Microsoft’s Component Object Model (an interoperability standard that allows component objects developed in different languages to call one another). Among other improvements, COM+ handles many resource management tasks that developers previously had to program. COM+ enables you to implement pooling for xfNetLink .NET.

COM+ application

Not an application in the traditional sense, but rather a set of administrative data that contains information about a collection of components. To implement pooling for xfNetLink .NET, you must create a COM+ application and then add components to it.


A sequence of characters in your code that clarifies what your program is doing and is ignored by the compiler. A Synergy DBL comment begins with a semicolon ( ; ).

command button

The rectangular button in a dialog box that carries out a command or initiates an action (for example, OK, Help, or Cancel).


In SQL Connection, a procedure that finishes a transaction and makes changes permanent.

common data

Data that is shared between routines but that doesn’t have to be passed as an argument.

Common Intermediate Language (CIL)

CIL is a processor- and platform-independent set of instructions that is executable in any environment that supports a CLR. During compilation, Synergy .NET source code is translated into CIL code. This was formerly known as Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL).

Common Language Runtime (CLR)

The CLR is the .NET component that manages program execution for .NET frameworks. The Microsoft .NET Framework, .NET Core, and Mono each have a CLR.

compat level

A numbering system for ISAM updates that begins with the ISAM revision number, followed by a period and another digit that is incremented by 1 each time new ISAM features are added. Compat levels enable you to change your file structure without requiring an entire ISAM revision change.

compilable text

Any characters in your code that the compiler doesn’t ignore.

compilation control directive

A type of compiler directive that instructs the compiler. It can precede or follow any logical line, and it applies to the remainder of the source file. See also structure control directive.

compilation unit

A collection of source files compiled together on one command line to produce a single executable or DLL.

compile-time expression

An expression that can be completely evaluated at compile time. Dimensions, indexes, and range specifications are not allowed in compile-time expressions.


The component of Synergy DBL that translates your source files containing Synergy DBL statements into object files containing system-level information.

compiler directive

A statement that instructs the Synergy compiler and is evaluated only when a program is compiled. Compiler directives are not included in the resulting executable program.

compiler listing

A display of your program that is generated when you compile. The compiler listing may or may not include one or more compiler listing tables, depending on which compiler options you set.

compiler listing table

A table that is generated in the compiler listing at the end of each routine if you’ve set the appropriate compiler options.

compiler option

A switch on the compile command that tells the compiler how to behave or interpret data.


The process of translating source files containing Synergy DBL statements into object files containing system-level information.

complex array

See real array.


One or more related methods grouped together as a named entity. Also see Synergy component.


An interactive tool (on Windows) for creating and modifying window scripts.

composite container window

The parent window for a composite window.

composite window

A window that consists of a parent window (a composite container window) and child windows and lists, but functions and appears to the user as a single window.

compound statement

A single logical unit that consists of a BEGIN statement, an END statement, and all the Synergy DBL statements that come between them.

concurrency control

Methods used by relational databases to ensure that changes made to data by one user are not overwritten with changes made concurrently by other users. The two main types of concurrency control are optimistic locking and pessimistic locking.


A set of circumstances that is either true or false.


An expression whose value is interpreted as a true or false value. In ReportWriter, defines the fields and conditions that ReportWriter will use and compare in determining whether to print a field for a particular report record, which of two calculations to perform for a given calculation field, or whether or not to print a pre- or post-break line or field.

conditional block

A group of statements that begin with the .IFDEF or .IFNDEF directive, end with the .ENDC directive, and may contain the .ELSE directive. A conditional block specifies that compilation depends on either the declaration or nondeclaration of a variable or replacement identifier.

configuration field

A field you can modify within your program to change operational characteristics of UI Toolkit.

configuration key

See product key .

connect file

A text file containing datasource (data file location) and dictsource (system catalog path) definitions. This file is used by DBA when opening a system catalog and xfODBC when accessing a Synergy database.

connect string

A string use by SQL Connection to connect to and log onto a database. The connect string is passed in a call to %SSC_CONNECT. If SQL OpenNet is used for the network layer, the connect string includes a network string (see network string).


A database log-in.


A value that doesn’t change while the program is being executed, such as a literal, a literal field, or a .DEFINE identifier. Also called a literal.


Additional contextual information that is added to a type parameter of a generic type.

constructed type

A generic type that has one or more type arguments.


A class member function that is called when an instance of the class is created.


A window that contains one or more controls or subcontainers. An ActiveX control container can contain one or more ActiveX controls. A Toolkit ActiveX container window is a Synergy window that can contain one or more ActiveX control containers. “Contain” means the containee is visually placed completely within the container, and the destruction of the container automatically causes the destruction of the containee.


The next input field to process in an input set OR whatever object your mouse pointer is over when you click to access the context menu in Composer. In UI Toolkit, you can change the context with the I_NEXT subroutine.

context-sensitive help

“What is it?” and “What can I do with it?” information about the current context. For example, if the cursor is in an input field, context-sensitive help would provide information about what to enter in that field.

continuation line

The second and all subsequent physical lines for a single logical line. A continuation line begins with an ampersand (&).

Control Bar

The Composer window that contains Composer’s menu bar and toolbars.

control statement

A Synergy DBL statement that changes the order of execution by transferring program control to another statement, transferring control to another program or subroutine, ending processing of the current program, or returning control to a referencing routine.

conversion setup file

A text file containing table access levels and data file location, generated by DBA.


Cyclic redundancy check, or an integer derived from a record in order to detect changes. Any change to the data generates a different CRC.

cross-reference file

A file that contains name link associations, which ReportWriter uses to provide access to related files and data structures.

current record

The last record that was read by READ or READS or positioned to by FIND on an ISAM channel. There is no current record after a ­DELETE or WRITE.


In SQL Connection, a processed SQL statement (one that's been parsed, optimized, etc., by the database) and/or an associated database mechanism that traverses a result set and maintains a position on a row in the result set. With SQL Connection, cursors are accessed using the number returned in the dbcursor argument for %SSC_OPEN. See also logical cursor.



A program running on an operating system that is not invoked explicitly but that sits dormant, waiting for a specific condition to occur.

data control commands

The commands that affect the position and display of text within text (general) windows and input windows.

data division

The part of a Synergy program in which you define the data structures that will be used in the program.

data manipulation statement

A Synergy DBL statement that directly changes your data.

data provider

A set of classes that provide ADO.NET access to a data source, as well as data services. For example, the .NET Framework includes the .NET Framework Data Provider for ODBC, which provides ADO.NET access to ODBC data sources.

data reference operation

Either a casting function or a mechanism that obtains various data characteristics.

data type

Data representation such as alpha, decimal, implied-decimal, integer, String, class, structure, etc.


A set of related files created and managed by a database management system (DBMS). Database and file structures are determined by the software application in which it is generated. Although the term database is sometimes used to refer to the combination of a software application and a data source, this documentation considers data source and database to be analogous.

Database Administrator (DBA)

An xfODBC component that enables you to generate, maintain, customize, and verify the system catalog; create user access; and generate a conversion setup file.


The xfODBC utility used to generate a system catalog and initialize user and group access.


The utility used to parse the attribute information in Synergy code and output an XML file that can be imported into the Synergy Method Catalog.


A productivity tool that enables programs to run in a special debugging mode so you can test, detect, locate, and remove any mistakes. In UI Toolkit, a utility that enables you to look into the windowing environment and evaluate the state of the Toolkit system.

decimal data

A signed whole number that consists of any of the characters 0 through 9.

decimal expression

An expression whose result is a decimal value.

declarative statement

A statement that appears in the routine’s data division and defines a variable that the routine can access.

default value

The value of a field before any procedure division statements are executed, where the field does not have an initial value.

defined variable

In SQL Connection, a host variable used for storing data values retrieved from the database.

definition file

Contains standard Synergy DBL local, common, or global record layouts.


A type-safe function pointer used by the .NET Framework. It specifies a method to call and optionally an object to call the method on.


A character that separates adjacent language elements in a statement.


A method used by the UI Toolkit list routines to load list data. List items are loaded as needed for display purposes, rather than all at once at the beginning. This can significantly improve the initial performance of processing a large list.

derived class

A class that extends another class, inheriting all of its members. A derived class is a child of its immediate parent.


A memory block that contains information about the associated variable or literal (such as the size, type, and position of the data) and the default way of passing arguments to external subroutines.

destructive receive

When the RECV statement receives and deletes a message from the message manager.


A class member function that is called before an instance of the class is destroyed.

detail line

In ReportWriter, one line of a report record. A report record can have a maximum of 10 detail lines.


A piece of equipment within or attached to a computer.


The defined size of an array. For example, the dimension of an array with 2 rows and 3 columns is (2,3), or 2 by 3. In the .NET Framework, a dimension is referred to as a rank.

direct connection

In SQL Connection, a database connection that does not use SQL OpenNet. Direct connections must be to a local database or database client. Connect strings for direct connections start with the name or keyword of a database driver (e.g., VTX0).


Refers to a menu column or entry that the user cannot currently select. See also enabled.


To send an event to the routine that is appropriate for handling it. Typically, this involves calling a method (subroutine), or returning the event to the parent routine.


The display of a program consists of the menu bar and screen body. It also owns menu column and window placement (although the menu columns and windows themselves belong to the environment).

display area

The part of a window that shows on the screen. It is a subset of the total window area (and can be equal to the total window area). See also view.

display attribute

A characteristic of a window or an associated element that affects its appearance, such as color, boldface, blinking, reverse video, and underline.

display length

The maximum number of characters that can be displayed in a field. This includes any formatting characters and the negative sign if negative numbers are allowed for the field.

display method

A subroutine called whenever the associated field is about to be displayed by UI Toolkit.

display rendition

A combination of the display attributes and color of the screen. Each screen cell has its own display rendition.

display screen

The screen layout used by UI Toolkit. The screen is divided into five sections: header, menu bar, body, information line, and footer.

distributed application

Software whose tasks are split (i.e., distributed) between client and server machines.


Short for Dynamic Link Library, which is a library file containing API routines. You can access these libraries at runtime without explicitly linking them to an application. Most (third-party) Windows applications provide and use their own DLLs.

drag bar

In a Windows environment, if DRAGBAR is specified as ON (using the UI Toolkit .BORDER command), the window’s title bar also functions as a drag bar. The user can move such a window by clicking on the window’s title (or caption) bar and, while continuing to press down on the mouse button, dragging the window to a new location within the application.

drill method

A subroutine called when the user clicks a drilldown button (on Windows) or selects a drilldown menu entry (in non-Windows environments). A drill method is primarily used to look up additional information or display a dialog box.

drop table

To delete or remove a table from a database.

dynamic array

An array whose upper bounds are determined at runtime. You can specify multiple levels in a dynamic array by declaring a bracket pair for each level.

dynamic cursor

(SQL Server concept) A server-side cursor that reflects all changes made to the underlying data while the cursor is open. Dynamic cursors are also known as sensitive cursors, and are the only cursors you can use with SQL Server for updates and deletes. Dynamic cursors are the default cursors for VTX12_SQLNATIVE.

dynamic memory

Memory that is allocated as the program requires it. The system allocates the memory and returns a pointer to the base of the memory segment.


edit format method

A subroutine called by Toolkit whenever the text in the field is being formatted for editing purposes.


An abbreviation for executable library. See executable library.

empty field

A field that contains absolutely no data (not even blanks for alpha fields or zeros for decimal or implied-decimal fields). An empty field is also a field that has been neither displayed nor entered since it was last initialized.


Refers to a menu column or entry that the user is able to select. See also disabled.


To contain and control the access to functionality or data within a class.


A program design philosophy in which a routine is called to perform a specified function, but how it performs that function need not be known to the caller. Private data and methods for the encapsulated routine are not accessible to other routines. Also referred to as “black-box processing.” See also privatized.

end-of-file character

A control character that marks the physical end of file.


Special optional characters displayed at either end of a scroll bar on a UNIX or OpenVMS system, which may optionally indicate whether or not further progress in that direction is possible.

enumerated field

In ReportWriter, a field that designates a numeric value that is stored in a file and that represents an alpha string. It is specified in conjunction with a selection list or an allow list in Repository.


A set of related values. An enumeration has a name and one or more members, which may have values assigned to them. For example, you could create an enumeration called color that consists of the values red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.


A program state that consists of the current definition of the screen, any terminal settings and processing options, and open channels. In UI Toolkit, when you create (enter) a new environment, Toolkit saves the old environment and copies its attributes to the current one. Any change to an environment item supersedes the previous contents.

environment field

A temporary field used to obtain static data from the environment. It can be used to retrieve shell or operating system values, global control record information, or any other data that remains static for the duration of the report.

environment level

Each creation of a new environment. Environments are nested as you go from one to another. A program can have up to 32 environment levels with 16 being the default. An application moves from one environment to another with the E_ENTER subroutine, and leaves an environment level using the E_EXIT subroutine. Upon exit, the current environment is deleted, including all of its local items, and the previous environment is restored. See also shared display.

environment setup file

A text file you write to define the data environment variables that are used by xfODBC when locating Synergy data files. The environment setup file is typically used for setting environment variables that are used in the Open filename field of a repository file definition.

environment variable

An abbreviation defined at the operating system level for a device, directory, or path name. Also called a logical.

error literal

A constant that represents a runtime error. Error literals have the format $ERR_string, where string is an error identification mnemonic.

error trapping

The process of “catching” problems so that you can transfer control to another part of the program that will handle the error instead of letting your program die. Errors that aren’t trapped are considered fatal.

escape sequence

The set of characters emitted by a keyboard when a key is pressed.


An action that occurs as a result of another action (for example, a mouse click) and to which a routine must respond. Events can be user-generated (for example, by selecting a menu entry) or program-driven (for example, a list needs to load a new item).

event-driven programming

A programming style that allows UI Toolkit to control your application after you have called a Toolkit subroutine. After the Toolkit subroutine has finished its task, it returns control to your program, potentially signaling that an event has occurred that your program must now dispatch. Also known as “event-style programming.” See also dispatch and encapsulation.

event handler

A method that processes an event.


In Java or .NET, an error.

executable file

A file that can be executed or run. An executable file is normally composed of one or more object files linked together.

executable library

A group of executable subroutines and functions in a single file created by the Synergy linker.

explicit group

In Repository, a group in which the members are defined within the Field Definitions list. See also implicit group.


A combination of data elements (operands) and operators that produce a value. An expression must have one or more operands and zero or more operators.


To inherit nonstatic methods, fields, and properties and nested classes from the parent class, as well as any members that the parent inherits from its parent, in recursive fashion.

external function

A user-defined or system-supplied nonintrinsic function that was defined with the FUNCTION statement. External functions must be declared with the EXTERNAL FUNCTION statement before they can be used.

external key

Enables a key to be composed of a segment from the defining structure and one or more fields from another structure or structures.

external subroutine

A user-defined or system-supplied routine that begins with the SUBROUTINE statement and is executed from another routine with the XCALL statement.

external subroutine library

A collection of external subroutines supplied by Synergy DBL as a standard feature of the language.


fatal error

A problem that results in immediate, unconditional termination of your program, unless trapped by the FATAL subroutine.


In SQL Connection, an operation that retrieves a row or a set of rows from a result set. Cursor settings and type determine which row(s) will be fetched. For SQL Connection, %SSC_MOVE performs fetches.


A named area of computer memory that contains an individual data element. It stores a specific item of data, such as a customer number, first and last name, telephone number, and so forth. For the purposes of xfODBC, field is used interchangeably with column, and a repository field is equivalent to a system catalog column.

field header

The text that appears at the top of the column for a field (if you choose to print page headers) on each page of a report in ReportWriter. The default field header is the header that was specified during the field definition phase of the Repository application.

field position indicator

An argument that designates a field should begin at a specific point, or offset, in the record.

field set

A set of row, column, and length “fields” within a Synergy window.


A physical data file, which is an area of the disk where groups of similar data (called records) are stored.

file definition

Describes a particular file and defines which structures can be used to access it.

file manipulation statement

A statement that accesses records within a file or group of files.

file stack

A temporary file management system consisting of a single physical file that contains multiple logical scratch files accessed in a stack manner. Only the most recently opened logical file can be extended, though prior files can be accessed. In UI Toolkit, the file stack is managed by the file-stack routines (FS_xxx).

file-stack level

Identifies a logical file within a file stack.

file type

In Synergy DBL, defines whether a file is ISAM, relative, sequential, or stream. In Repository, defines a specific class of data file (for example, ASCII or DBL ISAM). File types are assigned to structures and file definitions. User-defined file types enable developers to supply subroutines to handle I/O for file types that are not supported by ReportWriter.

fill characters

A pattern of characters to be loaded into a variable.


An unnamed field that merely occupies record space.

firehose cursor

(SQL Server concept) Not really a cursor, but the recommended mechanism when using VTX12_SQLNATIVE. Data is cached on the client and is forward-only and read-only. Firehose cursors minimize overhead and are faster than real cursors (dynamic, static, etc.), but they return only one row at a time, and you can have only one active statement for a connection (though MARS may allow multiple active statements in some cases). No other statement can be executed until all results have been fetched or until the statement has been canceled.

fixed font

A font in which every character has the same width. Also known as a monospaced font. See also proportional font.

fixed-length record

A record that always has the same number of characters.


An indicator of some special condition or that tells a later part of the program of a condition that occurred earlier.


A design for a set of characters, comprised of typeface, point size, width, and spacing. For example, within the Helvetica typeface there are many different fonts (10-point italic, 12-point bold, and so forth).

font handle

An identifier associated with a font. Be aware that this identifier is not a memory handle, and, therefore, the font handle’s value can coincidentally be the same as an existing memory handle.

font palette

A group of font entries, each associating a font name with a typeface, point size, and sizing character combination. You can change a font palette entry by explicitly modifying it in a Synergy initialization file, modifying it with Composer, or by calling the UI Toolkit %U_WNDFONT function.


An optional trailer for the UI Toolkit screen layout. The footer can be up to four lines long. You can place information into the footer with the E_SECT subroutine.

force buffer

In UI Toolkit, the location to which pending input is copied if the user selects a menu entry (for example, a search function) before pressing Enter to enter the data. You must use the I_FORCE subroutine to get that data from the force buffer into your program.

foreign key

A key used to specify relationships between files that does not have to be a true key in the data file. A foreign key can be thought of as “pointing” straight to a particular record on another file. Also see access key.

formal parameter

A parameter that is declared in a subroutine or function.


The way data will be displayed in an input field or the way a field will be displayed in a report. Global formats are available for use by any field definition in Repository and also in ReportWriter. Structure-specific formats are defined and only valid for a particular structure. Predefined formats for date and time fields are built into every repository.

forward-only cursor

A cursor that cannot be scrolled. With a forward-only cursor, the next row fetched will be the next row in the result set. Forward-only cursors are the only type of cursor that most databases support and are the default when using any SQL Connection database driver except VTX12_SQLNATIVE.

fractional precision

The number of decimal places in an implied-decimal value.

“from” key

Refers to the key in the structure that is defining a relation. The “from” key may be an access key or a foreign key.

“from” structure

Refers to the structure that is defining a relation.

full field

A field that contains data. Note that a field can be full of blanks and still be considered full. A full field has been either displayed or entered since its last initialization. See also empty field.


A process that returns a value and can be called explicitly or referenced implicitly.

function code

The internal value assigned by UI Toolkit that associates a keyboard’s escape sequences with menu entries.

function name

The name of a function code. For example, on a PC, the default name of Function 1 is “F1.”



Global assembly cache. A directory structure in which a .NET application will look for assemblies. Assemblies placed in the GAC are considered “public”, enabling a single copy of the assembly to be used by multiple applications.

general window

In UI Toolkit, a basic window that is not an input window, selection window, list, or menu column. General windows are usually used to convey information, such as error or information messages. Text windows and Message windows are general windows.


A class or structure that is not related to a specific type but that can be worked with in a type-safe manner and tailored to the specific data type upon which it acts. A blueprint for a type.

generic type

A type that uses generic type parameters.

generic type argument

The type that is specified to be used in place of the generic type parameter.

generic type parameter

A placeholder for a specific type, used in a generic type definition.


A utility that generates an XML file from method definitions in the Synergy Method Catalog and structure definitions in the repository.


Refers to an element that is owned by the entire environment system rather than by a specific environment level. Global elements can be defined or deleted at any environment level, but they are not automatically deleted when exiting an environment. Global elements include Synergy channels, columns, windows, and lists. See also local.

Global Assembly Cache (GAC)

A machine-wide central repository of .NET assemblies that are shared by multiple applications on a single machine.

global data

Data that is stored in a named data area rather than the local data area and that can be accessed by any routine in a program.

global data section

A uniquely named data area that contains shared records.

global format

A repository format that can be used by a field definition in any structure.

global routine

A subroutine or function that is defined outside a class or namespace.

global structure

A structure that is defined outside a routine, class, or namespace declaration.


An abbreviation for Global Record File Address (or global RFA), which is stored as a 10-byte variable that includes a 4-byte record CRC and a 6-byte RFA. See also RFA and CRC.


A structure within a structure, as defined by the Synergy DBL GROUP statement. Fields or other group definitions can be members of a group.

group (DBA)

One or more users with the same database access level defined in the group catalog.

group catalog

The SODBC_GROUPS.* files that contain group ID, group name, and user access information.


A globally unique identification number. GUIDs are guaranteed to be unique not only to the database, but everywhere: no other computer in the world will generate a duplicate of a GUID value.



A pointer to the base of the memory segment.

hardware scrolling

A method of moving data on a terminal screen that uses the capabilities of the terminal to do the scrolling instead of repainting all scrolled characters.


An optional banner for the UI Toolkit screen layout. The header can be up to four lines long. You can place information into the header with the E_SECT subroutine.

high-order bit

The bit that has the highest, unsigned binary significance.


The machine on which xfServerPlus is running.

host variable

A Synergy DBL variable used to store database data. See defined variable and bind variable.

hot entry

In UI Toolkit, a routine that is not tied to any particular program and is accessible from anywhere in your application. Hot-entry processing is performed by the EHELP_METHOD and EUTILS_METHOD subroutines, which you write yourself but which are called by one of the Toolkit general input routines (such as I_INPUT, I_INPFLD, T_EDIT, or T_VIEW).


HyperText Markup Language, the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web.


Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The client/server TCP/IP protocol used on the World Wide Web for transferring HTML documents.


An extension to HTTP that enables you to securely transmit sensitive data over the Web.

hyperlink method

A subroutine that’s called when the user clicks on an input field prompt.



An abbreviation for input/output.


A sequence of alphanumeric characters, underscores (_), and dollar signs ($) that signifies a statement, text string, variable, or routine to the compiler.

implicit group

A group in which the members are defined by referencing another structure. See also explicit group.

implied-decimal data

A signed number with a whole number part and decimal places.

implied key of reference

A field in your data record that matches the key defined by the READ or FIND statement. The implied key of reference is used if you don’t explicitly specify a key of reference with the KEYNUM qualifier.

include file

A file containing data definitions that is included by a routine using the .INCLUDE compiler directive. Also called a definition file.


A data structure used to increase retrieval speed for a database table. An ISAM index is an ordered set of key values associated with records in an ISAM file. ISAM indexes can be in ascending or descending order and can allow duplicate keys.

indexed access

The method of retrieving a specific record within an index file that eliminates having to search the file sequentially. Also called keyed access.

Indexed Sequential Access Method



A special property that allows data in a class to be accessed using array syntax.

information line

A single line at the bottom of the screen body (above the footer) that is used to display messages and general information.


To derive functionality and data from another class.


When one class of object is derived from another, it may retain characteristics (properties) of its parent class. This is termed inheritance. In Toolkit, fields derived from the Repository inherit all the properties defined therein, but may overload some of them.

inherited question field

In ReportWriter, a question field whose characteristics were copied from an existing field.

initial value

The value for a field before any procedure division statements are executed. You can set an initial value in your field definition in the data division.

inner class

See nested class.

in-place merge

Combining two or more ordered files without creating a new output file; the files are merged back into the first input file.


The data that a computer receives.

input field

A window field associated with a set of characteristics that defines how terminal input and display are to occur.

input information

Determines how input must be entered and how it will be displayed and interpreted.

input length

The maximum number of characters that can be entered into an input field.

input set

A list of one or more fields in an input window. An input set defines the default order for processing fields.

input/output statement

A statement that controls the exchange of data between the executing program and the input/output devices (such as printers, terminals, disks, and so forth) attached to the computer system.

input window

A window that can contain text, input fields, and buttons, in which the user enters information.

insensitive cursor

See static cursor.


To create an instance of a class (i.e., an object). A class is a prototype; when you instantiate a class, you create an object with the attributes of that class.

integer data

A byte-oriented, binary representation of a signed whole number.


A contract that a class agrees to abide by. An interface defines the properties, methods, and events that a class must use without providing any code itself. A class that implements an interface agrees to implement every aspect of that interface exactly as it is defined. In the Synergy Method Catalog, methods are grouped into interfaces for inclusion in a Synergy component. The interface name becomes the class name in the generated component.

internal subroutine

A routine that begins with a label and whose code is part of the calling routine.

interprogram communication statement

A statement that passes and obtains data from interactive processes.

interrupt character

A keyboard character sequence that interrupts the normal flow of program execution.

intrinsic function

A Synergex built-in function that can be used in a calculation expression and generates a value.


Indexed Sequential Access Method. A file access method that stores data sequentially while maintaining an index of key fields to show where data records are stored.

ISAM file

A data file in b-tree format that is organized to support both indexed access for optimal, keyed record access and efficient sequential record processing in any key order. See ISAM.


A single repetition of a loop.


JAR file

A Java archive file. A JAR file is a collection of compressed Java class files, similar to a ZIP file. JAR files provide a way to distribute numerous class files together. The classes in a JAR file can be used by a JSP or Java application without unpacking the archive.


An interpreted language used to write applications, applets, and JavaServer Pages.

Java application

A stand-alone program written in Java that can run outside a browser.

JavaServer Pages (JSP)

A web page that combines HTML and code written in Java. When a browser requests a JavaServer Page, the web server executes the embedded code, allowing the webpage to interact with databases and other programs. For more information about JSP, see in the Java section of the Oracle website.

Java Runtime Environment (JRE)

The runtime for Java applications. The JRE includes the JVM, the Java core classes, and supporting files.

Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

The Java interpreter. A web browser must contain the JVM (i.e., must be Java-enabled or Java-compliant) to run applets or JavaServer Pages.



The portion of a data record that identifies and is used to access the record and to define a sequential order in which to process that file. A key can be composed of discontiguous data segments from within the record. For practical purposes, key and index are used interchangeably.

key file

See Synergy key file (.skf) .

key map

A record in the key map file that defines the correspondence between the function keys and other special keys on the user’s keyboard and the functions they perform. A user’s terminal type is stored in the logical DTKTERM (or TERM), which UI Toolkit uses as the key to locate the appropriate record in the key map file. When the window environment is initialized, Toolkit loads the key map defined in DTKTERM (or TERM).

key map file

A file that associates keys (escape sequences) with internal function codes to create shortcuts.

key mapping script file

A file (keymap.ctl by default) that contains function codes for shortcuts for a given environment or terminal type. When you generate a window library, shortcuts defined in the key mapping script file are combined with shortcuts specified with .ENTRY.

key of reference

A key that defines which ISAM file index is used in sequential operations. It is established by the READ or FIND statement, or by the POSRFA subroutine. Records accessed by READS are retrieved in the order of the key of reference.

key value

A value that points to a specific data record as defined by the key. The index file contains these key values in sequential order as defined by the key.

keyset-driven cursor

(SQL Server concept) A server-side cursor that reflects updates made to rows that were part of the result set when it was established. Keyset-driven cursors do not reflect deletes or inserts.


A word that has predefined meaning in the Synergy DBL and that identifies a statement, compiler directive, or language feature.

keyed access

The method of retrieving a specific record within an indexed file that eliminates having to search the file sequentially. Also called indexed access.


lambda function

An inline function that maintains state and that can access the variables available to the method in which it is declared.

leaf block

A block in the final level of an ISAM file’s index that is read last on any keyed access. A leaf block consists of sorted key values with a one-to-one correspondence between a leaf entry and a data record.


A symbolic name for a statement in the procedure division. A label enables you to transfer program control to the referenced statement.


The spacing between lines of text.

leave method

For an input field, a subroutine called to perform additional processing after an input field is processed. For a list, a subroutine called when it is preparing to change which item is highlighted.


The component of Synergy DBL that creates and maintains object libraries.

License Manager

A set of utilities that controls the installation and use of Synergy/DE products.

linked list

In UI Toolkit, a list of records in a logical file within a file stack. Linked lists are maintained with the linked-list routines (LL_xxx). Records can be inserted or deleted at any point, and the ordering of logically adjacent records can be interchanged. First, last, previous, next, and previously marked records can be retrieved.


The component of Synergy DBL that combines the object files created by the compiler to produce executable code files.


The process that combines one or more routines into an executable program or library.


A collection of identically formatted items. In UI Toolkit, a set of data and windows managed by the list-processing routines (L_xxx) to maintain a visible list of items. List items are loaded on demand. New items can be inserted at any point, and existing items can be deleted. Adjacent items can be interchanged. The list pointer can be positioned up or down one item, one page of items, to the top or bottom of the list or of the current page. The horizontal display area can be modified, and is automatically tied to the display area of the list’s input window. Searching for a specific alphanumeric string is also supported. See also list class and null list.

list class

A set of specifications for the creation of a list. These include default placement, number of visible items, headers, footers, whether or not the list may be null, and other options. You can define list classes in scripts and store them in window libraries (with the .LISTCLASS command) or you can create them at runtime (with the L_CREATE subroutine).

listing counter

A tally of the number of times you use .LIST (the counter is incremented) and .NOLIST (the counter is decremented). Listing is enabled while the counter is greater than or equal to zero.


A value that doesn’t change while the program is being executed, such as a literal field or a .DEFINE identifier. Also called a constant. Both numbers and text can be literal values.

load method

In UI Toolkit, a subroutine called by the list processor each time it needs a new item in a list.


Refers to an element owned by the defining environment level. Only the defining environment level can delete a local element. Local items include channels, columns, and windows. All local columns and windows are deleted and all local channels are purged when an environment level is exited. See also global.

local data

Data that can only be accessed by the defining routine, such as global common data and subroutine arguments.

local routine structure

A structure that is defined inside a local routine.


To keep a file or record from being modified by another channel or program.


A way to associate Synergy channels and window IDs with the internal control structures of UI Toolkit. All channels and windows are automatically logged if they are opened or loaded with a Toolkit subroutine. If a program creates, loads or restores a window without using the U_LDWND, M_LDCOL, or I_LDINP subroutine, the window ID must be logged into the utility system by the U_LOGWND subroutine. When the window is logged, it is marked as global or local. If it is local, the current environment is the defining environment level.

logical assignment

An abbreviation defined at the operating system level for a device, directory, or path name. Also called an environment variable.

logical cursor

An SQL Connection mechanism for caching soft-closed cursors.

logical file

A set of fixed-length records grouped together and maintained in a file stack. A logical file is associated with a single level.

logical line

One or more physical lines of code that function as a single Synergy DBL instruction. The second and all subsequent physical lines must begin with a continuation character (&).

logical screen

The characters and attributes associated with a window that are stored in memory.


A sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly until a specified condition is met.

loose field

A field defined in a class outside of a record.



A logical device in which a character stream can be written to and read from in first-in-first-out order.

main routine

The entry point into a program.


The number of spaces from the left and right edge of the window that will not be occupied by text.


Method Definition Utility. The application used to add, modify, and delete information in the Synergy Method Catalog. The MDU also has facilities for importing and exporting methods from the SMC.


A general term for any item that can be declared within another declaration, such as a namespace or class.

memory handle

A unique reference for protected Synergy DBL mappable memory.

memory usage summary table

An optional compiler listing that lists the amount of memory required by each program component.


A menu consists of menu columns associated with the menu bar.

menu bar

A one-line bar across the screen that lists the menu columns available to the current environment level. The menu bar follows the optional header and is part of the display screen. See also process-menu key.

menu column

A window that contains entries which a user can select. There are two kinds of menu columns: primary and submenu. A primary menu column is a drop-down list of selections from the menu bar. A submenu column is a drop-down list of selections adjacent to a primary menu entry or another submenu entry. Both types of menu columns are defined in a script file and are generated either by the Script or Proto programs, or at runtime. The terms “menu column” and “column” are used interchangeably. See also Script, Proto.

menu entry name

The internal name for a menu entry.

message manager

One of two facilities provided by Synergy DBL to process messages sent between programs.

message pool

A memory area used by the Synergy message manager that contains all Synergy DBL messages.


A routine within a class declaration that performs an operation that also has access to all fields of that class and any inherited classes. For UI Toolkit and ReportWriter, a program that you write and that Toolkit or ReportWriter calls when necessary.

method ID

A unique, 31-character value in the Synergy Method Catalog. xfServerPlus uses this value to look up the routine to call. On xfNetLink Synergy, this value is also used in the client code to reference the Synergy routine.

method information

Specifies any arrive, leave, drill, or hyperlink method subroutine associated with a field.

method name

In the Synergy Method Catalog, a 50-character value that you create to reference the Synergy routine. On xfNetLink Java and xfNetLink .NET, this value is used in the client code to invoke the Synergy routine.

method signature

The fully qualified name of a method which includes the namespace name(s), class name(s), method name, argument types, and return type in the form namespace.class.method(type[, type, ...])rettype.


A term used in Windows environments to describe functions, routines, or applications that suspend all other processing until that function (routine or application) is done processing. Application-modal means that other processes within that application are unavailable until the modal process is complete; however, the user can use alt+tab or click on another application to move and do processing within other applications.

modifiable list

A list of entries that you can edit. You can also add, delete, and sometimes move entries in the list.

modular programming

A programming technique that requires code to be an isolated functional unit with a well-defined, published interface (i.e., an argument list).


A programming technique that requires code to be an isolated functional unit with a well-defined, published interface (i.e., an argument list).

module descriptor block

A block that contains descriptive information about a routine, such as the routine name, the program section offsets, and the program section lengths.

module identifier string

A string defined by the .IDENT compiler directive that is to be included in a module’s object records. Refer to your OpenVMS manual for more information about “module identifier” strings.


An implementation of the .NET Framework that runs on a number of platforms, including Linux machines.

multiple projections

In ReportWriter, a method of processing secondary files to create detail records. It enables you to create records first from one file and then from the second file, instead of combining data from both files.


n-way merge

Combining two or more ordered files into a separate output file.

name link

An association between fields in different structures that is used by ReportWriter to access related files.


A unique name that represents a grouping of classes, structures, subroutines, and functions (and interfaces and delegates in .NET) that is used to prevent naming collisions between them. A default namespace is the namespace to which subroutines and functions that have no declared namespace are added.

native image

An assembly that has been pre-compiled for the particular platform it is running on. An assembly installed as a native image is installed in the GAC with the ngen.exe utility.

native integer

The storage format for integer data on a given CPU.

nested class

A class declared entirely within another class declaration.

.NET Core

An cross-platform open source implementation of .NET that is optimized for server applications and mobile apps. Synergy .NET supports .NET Core console applications and libraries for Windows x86 and x64 platforms.

.NET Framework

A software framework that consists of a Common Language Runtime (CLR) and a base class library named Framework Class Library (FCL).

.NET Standard

The set of APIs implemented by all .NET implementations. Synergy .NET Standard libraries can run on .NET Framework and .NET Core on Windows x86 and x64, on can be added to Windows Universal Platform (UWP) applications written in other .NET languages (e.g., C#).

.NET Framework Data Provider for ODBC

An ADO.NET data provider included with the .NET Framework that enables access from .NET applications to ODBC data sources.

net ID

Network connection ID. See below.

network connection ID

The ID returned by %RX_START_REMOTE. The network connection ID is a handle to a memory structure containing information that describes the location and state of the xfServerPlus session that was created. Used by xfNetLink Synergy.

network string

A string that contains the information needed to connect to an SQL OpenNet service on a machine that has either the database or a client for the database. A network string is part of a connect string.

non-CLS structure

A structure defined without the CLS modifier, which means it is a Synergy structure (as opposed to a .NET value type).

non-interactive runtime

A reduced-size runtime that starts up faster than the dbr runtime because the functions required to control an application’s display and debugging capabilities are minimized. Non-interactive Synergy runtimes are dbs, dbssvc, and dbspriv.

non-modifiable list

A list of entries that you can select but not change, add, or delete.

non-positioned cursor

In SQL Connection, a logical cursor that can’t be used for positioned updates, but that is more efficient in other cases.

non-window data

In list processing, the data buffer containing additional information that you don’t want to display in the list. Non-window data can be supplemental data that needs to be stored and retrieved for each list item. Although this data may duplicate input window data, it will be stored and retrieved in the format passed to the list processor, whereas the input window data is stored and retrieved as displayed.


An empty value or lack of information. (Note that a zero and a blank are not null, because they convey information.)

null list

A list with no items loaded into it, or a list that has had its last item deleted.

nullable type

A type that represents all values of an underlying data type plus an additional null value. A nullable type maps to the System.Nullable structure.


The digits 0 through 9.

numeric expression

An expression whose result is a numeric value.

numeric type

A term that encompasses the data types decimal, implied-decimal, ­integer, packed, and implied-packed.



An instance of a class. In Composer, any window, list class, menu column, window field, input field, selection window entry, menu entry, text, line, box, or button.

object code

The system-specific information that the compiler generates.

object file

A file that is created when a source file is compiled. An object file contains one or more object modules.

object handle

A variable that is used to operate on a class or its members.

object library

A group of subroutine object modules in a single file created with the Synergy librarian. Object libraries are linked into an executable file with the Synergy linker.

Object Manager

The Composer window that displays a visual representation of the project file, script file(s), and user interface object hierarchy.

object module

A compiled routine.


An overlapping that occurs when one window is placed over all or part of another window.


Open Database Connectivity. A standard API for accessing databases in a Windows environment.

ODBC Driver Manager

A dynamic-link library (DLL) provided by Microsoft. The Driver Manager opens and closes ODBC drivers as directed by an ODBC-enabled application.

ODBC-enabled application

A front-end or client application running on Windows that uses an ODBC API to access various types of databases.


A specific point in a record where a field begins.


An abbreviation for object library. See object library.


A third-party library that provides SSL support to the Synergy HTTP document transport API.


The data element in an expression.


The part of an expression that performs the action on the operands. Synergy DBL has the following operators: unary plus and minus, arithmetic, assignment, rounding, relational, string relational, Boolean, bitwise, and concatenation and reduction.

optimistic locking

An approach to concurrency control where the database does not lock data accessed for update or delete. Optimistic locking assumes that the front-end application will ensure data integrity. The advantage to optimistic locking is that it improves throughput. The disadvantage is that a user may be able to access rows of data only to get an error when attempting to write data to those rows because another user who concurrently accessed the data submitted changes first.

outer class

The class in which a nested class is nested.

overlaid field

A field that is “covered” by one or more overlay fields. It must precede the overlay field(s) in your field definition list.


A technique that allows two or more fields to occupy the same data location.

overlay field

A field that lays on top of another field (the overlaid field) so that the two fields share all or part of the same data space. For example, if your overlaid field is a date, your overlay fields might be the month, the day, and the year.

overlay indicator

The symbol “,X”, which indicates that you are defining an alternate layout for a record.

overlay offset

The overlay offset is the amount to add to the first character in the overlaid field to determine where the overlay begins. (For example, if the overlay begins at the first character of the overlaid field, the offset is 0; if the overlay begins at the second character, the offset is 1; and so on.)

overlay window

A window that occupies the same area as another window. The data, window size, and data attributes of the window are the same as those of the overlaid window.


To redefine the properties or methods for an object; to give another method in the same class the same name but different parameters. In UI Toolkit, the properties of fields derived from the Repository can be redefined, or overloaded, in the script file (or by IB_FIELD or I_FLDMOD). The general help method supplied by UI Toolkit (TKP_HELP) can be overloaded by registering your own version with E_METHOD.


To provide a method declaration in an inherited class that supersedes the method declaration with the same signature in the parent class.


page footer

In ReportWriter, the text that appears at the bottom of each page of your report. The maximum size of a page footer is 10 lines.

page header

In ReportWriter, the text that appears at the top of each page of your report. The maximum size of a page header is 10 lines, which default to the header lines from your report record.

paint character

The character that replaces a deleted character on the screen.


A set of colors available to Synergy programs.

palette entry

One in a set of colors (or fonts) available to Synergy programs.


A variable to which a value may be assigned.


A template referenced by another template in Repository. Once a template references another template, the attributes of the parent template are inherited.

parent class

A class higher in the class inheritance hierarchy.

parent process

The process that has created a child process or subprocess. Control returns to the parent process once the child process is complete.


To separate statements into syntactic units.


The file hierarchy through which control passes to locate a particular file, or a way to reference a field within a group. The latter is referred to as a “variable path” in this documentation.

pessimistic locking

An approach to concurrency control that locks data resources for much of the duration of a transaction. For SQL Connection (when the correct commands are used), pessimistic locking locks rows from the first fetch (with %SSC_MOVE) or an insert until the transaction ends with %SSC_COMMIT, and an error is returned if another user attempts to access locked data. The advantage to pessimistic locking is that users are always able to submit changes to records and delete records without the possibility that these changes will conflict with other users’ changes. The disadvantage is that throughput may suffer.

physical line

An actual line of code in your program that contains no line breaks or carriage returns.

physical screen

The computer monitor on which the visible portions of placed windows are displayed. Before you can see changes to the physical screen, you must update the screen.


A unique project and programmer number combination assigned by the OpenVMS operating system.


Product License Agreement. Refers to the Synergex Synergy/DE Product License Agreement Terms and Conditions.

placement order

The order in which windows are placed on the screen, with the last window placed being the highest in the order. Windows higher in the placement order occlude those that are lower in the placement order.

point size

The height of characters in a font. A point equals 1/72 of an inch.


An address or other indication of a data location.


An identifier stored in a database and used by the database engine to keep track of data locations, usually by row. Analogous to a ROWID.

portable class library (PCL)

A type of library assembly that can target some platforms supported by Synergy .NET. The Portable Class Library project type has been deprecated by Microsoft. It has been replaced by the Class Library (.NET Standard) project type.

portable integer

An integer that is stored in a constant, system-independent format.


In SQL Connection, when discussing cursors, the current processing location for the result set. For example, if an application fetches the first two rows of a result set, the cursor will be positioned on the third row. With some databases, SQL Connection enables an application to move directly to a specific position in a cursor without performing a fetch.

positioned update

In SQL Connection, a change (update, insert, or delete) made to the underlying data at the current processing location of the result set (the row where the cursor is currently positioned). Positioned updates are invoked by a WHERE CURRENT OF clause in the update statement or by a FOR UPDATE OF clause in the select statement.

post-break line

In ReportWriter, a line that is printed at the end of a report break, after the break summary line.

pre-break line

In ReportWriter, a line that is printed at the beginning of a report break.


The number of places after the decimal point in an implied-decimal field.


To read ahead records or instructions that are expected to be processed into a higher-speed storage or memory buffer, thus speeding up program execution.

prefetch buffer

A memory resource used for improving network performance. Data from the database is retrieved and held in the prefetch buffer in anticipation of a function call.

primary file

In ReportWriter, the first report file selected for your report. It determines what other files will be available for selection, based on the relations that were established in the repository.


Reserved for the private use of a graphic control and unavailable for public use by the calling routines.

procedural class

In xfNetLink .NET and xfNetLink Java, a class that has methods. Procedural classes are created from the interfaces in the SMC. Compare with structure class.

procedure division

The part of your routine that contains the executable statements and defines the processing algorithms.

process-menu key

The key or key sequence that the user presses to activate a menu. This key is a toggle that also deactivates the menu. As Toolkit is distributed, the process-menu key is alt on Windows and ctrl+p on all other systems.

processing area

A subset of the total window area that can be modified.

producer code

A number given to you by Synergex that identifies your company for licensing purposes. This code is used by LM_LOGIN, LM_LOGOUT, win_lm_login, win_lm_logout, and win_lm_stat.

product key

An alphanumeric string that is used to configure a license, allowing the product to run. When using the Licensing Toolkit, these keys are generated by the License Key Generator utility based on a registration string provided by your customer. Your customer needs this key to configure License Manager to allow your products to run.


A performance analysis tool included with Synergy DBL.


A collection of one or more related files (for example, all of the files for a particular application) and the build parameters that operate on those files.

Properties window

The Composer window that contains a list of design object attributes, followed by the property, or value, for each attribute.


A group of specialized methods that are accessed as if they were a field. In Composer, the value of an attribute of an object.

proportional font

A font in which different characters have different widths. See also fixed font.


A menu-driven UI Toolkit program that creates windows from a script file, displays them on the screen, and stores them in a window library.


A member signature without an implementation.


A server that substitutes for another server. It intercepts messages and routes them where they need to go. Proxies are usually used for security reasons. For example, in xfNetLink Java, the SynergyWebProxy receives requests from Java and negotiates with xfServerPlus.

pseudo array

A single-dimension array of type a, d, d., i1, i2, i4, i8, p, or p. (for example, 10a5). We do not recommend using pseudo arrays, because there is no runtime bounds checking even when compiling with ‑qstrict.


In SQL Connection, a relational database column that is part of a database table but is typically invisible to the end user. ROWID is the most common example.


question field

In ReportWriter, a temporary field used to hold answers obtained from the user when a report is run.

quick-select character

A single character that accesses a menu, menu entry, or selection window item, or a key that when pressed simultaneously with the alt key accesses a command button in a dialog box. The quick-select character is underlined on a menu or list.

quit character

A character that signals the computer to quit program execution.


radio button

An input field displayed as a set of round buttons. The user selects one button to make a choice from among several items.

random access

The process of getting data from or placing data into a data location in which access is independent of the order of storage.

ranged variable

A variable followed by a ranging expression, either in absolute or relative form.


Enables you to designate a portion of a field for ReportWriter to use (for sorting, selecting, or printing), instead of the entire field. If your field is longer than 99 characters, ranging is invoked automatically.

ranging expression

An expression in parentheses after a variable reference that specifies starting and ending character positions relative to the beginning of the variable’s data space.


The number of possible dimensions in an array. For example, an array declared as arr, [5,3]a10 has rank 2, because there are two dimensions (5 and 3).

ratio of current to maximum

The relationship between what is currently displayed in a window and the total possible.

real array

A single or multi-dimensional array of type a, d, d., i1, i2, i4, i8, p, or p. that is specified in square brackets immediately preceding the data type (for example, [10]a5).

receive option flag

An indicator set by the RCFLG subroutine that controls the way a RECV statement searches for local, group, and global message queues.


A unit of data (consisting of one or more fields) into which files are subdivided. Each record in the file contains different data but has the same field layout.

record terminator

A character or character sequence that signals the end of a record.


The ability to XCALL a routine that is currently activated.

redraw key

The key or key sequence that the user presses to redraw the screen. As UI Toolkit is distributed, the redraw key sequence is ctrl+r.


The property that enables a routine to be called recursively.


A block of code delineated by the .REGION-.ENDREGION compiler directives that Visual Studio in .NET or Workbench will collapse and mark with a small box containing a plus sign. The classes, fields, groups, etc., defined within that region are not visible until the plus sign is clicked to expand the region.

registration string

A string of characters generated by License Manager. If you are using Licensing Toolkit, your customers must send you this string before you can generate product keys for them.


An attribute of structures that enables you to link the keys of one structure with the keys of other structures.

relational operator

An operator that compares two operands (equal to, not equal to, greater than, less than, greater than or equal to, or less than or equal to).

relative file

A file that consists of a series of fixed-length records referenced by their relative position within the file.

relative ranging

A form of a ranging expression that indicates the starting or ending character position and length of a character-sequence range using two arithmetic expressions separated by a colon.


A combination of the display attributes and color of portions of the screen. Rendition attributes are boldface, blinking, reverse video, and underscore.

rendition file

In UI Toolkit, a library that contains the renditions for each defined rendition scheme. Each rendition scheme is stored as a record in dtkrnd.ism.

renditions file

Contains predefined and default renditions. Renditions files can be defined and modified with UI Toolkit.

rendition scheme

A record that defines the display attributes and colors for your screen. In UI Toolkit, each rendition scheme has a unique name that is used as the key to locate the appropriate record in dtkrnd.ism. See also working rendition scheme.

report break

In ReportWriter, a sort field setting that causes a report to generate a new page when the value of that field changes. A subtotal will be computed for any field that will be totaled at the end of the report. (You can also set report breaks that don’t generate a new page.)

report definition

A report.

report definition file

In ReportWriter, a file that contains one or more report definitions.

report file

In ReportWriter, a file definition/structure combination that has been selected for use in your report.

report footer

In ReportWriter, the text that appears at the end of your report. The maximum size of the report footer is 10 lines, and it can either be on the same page as the end of the report or on a separate page.

report format

In ReportWriter, the report header, date and page number line, page header, report record layout, pre- and post-break lines, page footer, and report footer. You can view these items at any time while designing a report.

report header

In ReportWriter, the text that appears at the beginning of your report. The maximum size of a report header is 10 lines, and it can either be on the same page as the start of the report or on a separate page.

report record

In ReportWriter, the collection of fields from your selected report files that you’ve chosen to print in your report.


The centralized location where your data definitions are stored, or the files generated by Synergy/DE Repository. These files describe your actual data files. (If you’re a ReportWriter user, your repository should already be set up for you.)


A Synergy/DE application that orders and defines data files, structures, tags, fields, and keys. In xfODBC, dbcreate translates these repository definitions into system catalogs.

replacement identifier

A symbol that defines a text string that is to be substituted for the symbol throughout the program. The symbol is created with the .DEFINE statement.

replacement text

The character sequence that is substituted for a .DEFINE identifier.

reserved entry

One of a class of menu entries that is handled automatically by UI Toolkit and that is used to activate many of the standard Toolkit functions.

result set

A dataset that contains the results of a select statement. Result set is synonymous with rowset.


An abbreviation for Record File Address, which uniquely identifies a record within a file of any type of organization. An RFA is stored as an a6 variable. The RFA enables the program to bypass the index and reaccess the record directly.

RFA use counter

A byte that is incremented each time an RFA position is restored by a STORE or WRITE statement.


A procedure that reverses any pending changes during the current transaction, instead of committing them. Rollbacks can occur, for instance, in the event of data locking.

root block

The block of an ISAM file’s index that is read first on any keyed access. The root block contains entries that point to separator blocks.

rounding operator

The operator that truncates the left operand by the number of digits specified by the right operand in an expression.


A main routine, subroutine, function, or method.

routine call block (RCB)

A block of memory that contains the information necessary—routine name, ELB, and arguments—to make a routine call to xfServerPlus. You can use a routine call block to make remote calls with xfNetLink Synergy.

row locking

See optimistic locking and pessimistic locking.

row size

In SQL Connection, the aggregate size of each returned row.


In SQL Connection, a pseudo-column used in a relational database to uniquely identify each row in the database. Typically this column is not retrieved during SELECT * operations.


See result set.


The main component of Synergy DBL that supports the actions requested by your Synergy programs during execution and is required for Synergy applications (such as DBA in xfODBC) to run.

runtime option flag

An indicator set by the DFLAG or FLAGS subroutine that controls the way the runtime acts in response to the execution of Synergy DBL ­statements.

runtime terminal binding

The process that binds the keyboard to the shortcuts at runtime instead of during script processing.



A description of a repository written in Synergy Data Language.


The smallest of one of the following groupings that has the identifier declared as one of its members, not including inherited members: namespace, class, structure, record, group, CATCH block, or local data block.

screen function command

A command that is used with the DISPLAY statement to control terminal-independent screen functions (such as cursor position).

screen update

The act of copying the changes stored in the logical screen to the physical screen.


A UI Toolkit utility that converts and moves field information from existing script files into the Repository.

script information

The data associated with a field that affects how the field is used in UI Toolkit input windows. When a field is defined, Repository creates default script information for that field.


A UI Toolkit program that creates windows or columns from a script file and saves them in a window library. See also window library.

script file

An editable text file that contains special script commands to define and control user interface objects and their characteristics.

scroll bar

A one-dimensional window that is used to represent progress or regress by moving an indicator from one end of the window to the other. Scroll bars can optionally contain endpoints, which may indicate whether or not further progress in the given direction is possible. See also endpoints.

scrolling cursor

In SQL Connection, a server-side cursor that enables you to determine which row will be retrieved with the next fetch. Using the %SSC_CMD option, SSQL_CMD_SCROLL, you can specify whether the next fetched row will be the current row, the first row in the result set, the last row in the result set, or a row at a given location in the result set (specified with an absolute or relative value).

search list logical

A logical assignment that specifies one or more directory paths to search when looking for a file.

search path

A file specification that includes a search list logical.


A column in xfODBC that is a part or section of an index or key.

selection criteria

The fields and conditions that ReportWriter will use and compare in selecting the records for your report. You can specify up to 25 conditions (connected by AND and OR).

selection entry/field/item

The item selected from a list or menu. The terms “selection entry,” “selection field,” and “selection item” are all synonymous.

selection list

A pull-down list of options for an input field.

selection window

A window containing a choice of one or more entries that can be selected (usually by highlighting them and pressing enter).

sensitive cursor

See dynamic cursor.

separator block

A block of an ISAM file’s index that exists as a pathway to the leaf blocks. A separator block consists of entries that contain partial key values that point to other separator blocks or leaf blocks.


An ADO.NET term for an object that implements the IEnumerable or IQueryable interface.

sequential access

The process of finding a record by searching a file serially.

sequential file

A file that contains records delimited by an operating-system-specific record terminator. A sequential file can only be accessed in record mode.


A computer that processes client requests.

server-side cursor

(SQL Server concept) A cursor implemented on the server. Only fetched rows are sent to the client. Server-side cursors generally offer more functionality than client-side cursors, but they usually don’t perform as well.

“set” methods

Methods included in a generated JAR file, which can be used to set properties used by xfNetLink Java, such as the host name and port, log filename, and time-out values.

shared data

Data that can be accessed by more that one routine.

shared display

A display that is accessible by more than one environment level. Any changes made to the display in one environment level are reflected in all other environment levels that share that display. See also environment level.

shared image

A library of executable routines to which you can link statically or dynamically at runtime. Shared images may contain data references, as well as procedure references. On OpenVMS, the functionality of an executable library.


The UNIX operating system command processor.


A key or key sequence that is associated with a specific menu entry. It provides a quick way to access a menu item, bypassing the standard menu entry selection method.

sign extension

Extending an integer value by replicating the high-order bit throughout additional bytes.

simple array

See pseudo array.

simple variable

A variable that consists of the name of a data area including any path specifications. If the variable is defined as an array, it refers to the first element of the array.

sister file

In ReportWriter, one of a pair of files in a tree of relationships in which both files are selected to read and both are on the same level in the tree.

sizing character

In UI Toolkit, a single character that determines the cell size within a visual object for the purposes of positioning. For example, when you specify the sizing character to be “W”, the cell size is significantly wider than with a sizing character of “i”. Additionally, the sizing character is case sensitive, so a lowercase “w” sizing character produces a smaller cell size than an uppercase “W” sizing character.


Synergy key file. See Synergy key file (.skf).


A slot is allocated by License Manager each time someone starts the application. When you configure a product for a certain number of users, that number of slots is reserved.


Synergy Method Catalog. Identifies the Synergy routines that you have prepared for remote calling with xfServerPlus. The SMC includes information such as the function or subroutine name, the ELB or shared image it is stored in, and the type and length of its parameters.

sort fields

In ReportWriter, the fields on which your report will be sorted. You can select up to 10 sort fields for a report.

source file

A text file that contains Synergy code that has not been compiled or linked.


The process by which input and output devices appear to be working simultaneously, when in fact the system is inputting or outputting data using buffers, or temporarily storing data on disk or tape files until another part of the system is ready to print or otherwise process it.

SQL OpenNet

A Connectivity Series component that enables SQL Connection (and xfODBC) to work in a client/server configuration. For more information, see Configuring Connectivity Series.

SQL OpenNet connection

A database connection that uses SQL OpenNet for the network layer. Connect strings for SQL OpenNet connections start with “net:”.


Secure Socket Layer. The most common security protocol on the internet.


A temporary storage area for processing data and instructions.

standard cursor

See non-positioned cursor.

state flags

In UI Toolkit, flags marking the state of the environment. These flags can be set using the E_STATE subroutine.


A single, logical line of instruction in Synergy DBL that declares a data element or directs the procedural execution of a program.

static cursor

(SQL Server concept) A server-side cursor that does not reflect any changes made to the database after the result set was established. Static cursors are also known as insensitive cursors or snapshot cursors.

static data

Data accessible to all activations of a routine and guaranteed to keep its current state across activations.

static handle

A persistent memory handle that does not get released when the activation level of the generating routine is exited.

storage size

The size of the data area for a field (in bytes).

stored procedure

A pre-compiled, ready-to-execute command stored in a database and managed as a database object. Stored procedures may limit portability.

stream file

A file containing data that can be accessed with or without the knowledge of the record structure.


The result of an alpha expression that is defined by both its length and content.

string relational operator

An operator (equal to, not equal to, greater than, less than, greater than or equal to, less than or equal to) that compares two alpha operands for the length of both.

strip character

In ReportWriter, the character that will follow a blank-stripped field. For example, you would probably select “,” as the strip character for a blank-stripped city field. The default strip character is a blank space.

strong name key file

A file used to sign a .NET assembly, which usually includes a public and a private key that are subsequently embedded into the assembly.


A named reference to a structure and an allocation of memory onto which the structure is mapped.


A data type, which is represented as a structfield in code and definition files.


In Synergy DBL and UI Toolkit, a layout definition that specifies the relative positions of fields within a data area (for example, a record). A structure doesn’t allocate any memory, but it can be mapped to memory during program execution or used to define a structfield.

In Repository, ReportWriter, and xfODBC, a record definition or the combination of field and key characteristics for a particular file or files.

structure class

In xfNetLink .NET and xfNetLink Java, a class that has only properties, which represent fields in a structure. Structure classes are built from structures in the repository, which are referenced in the SMC. Compare with procedural class.

structure collection

An array of structures with a variable number of elements.

structure control directive

A type of compiler directive that classifies and delimits program structure. It is position-dependent within the program source code. See also compilation control directive.

structure-specific format

A repository format that is defined for a particular structure and can only be used by the fields in that structure.


See derived class.


A part of a field that is ranged.


The definition of a file’s record format.

submenu column

See menu column.


A module of code that is only executed when it is called by another routine. A subroutine does not constitute a complete program. It can be either internal or external.

subscripted field

In ReportWriter, the specification of a particular element of an arrayed field. Whenever an arrayed field is selected (for printing, selection criteria, or a calculation expression), you are prompted to specify which element of the array to use. This subscript value may be a literal or another field name.

subscripted variable

A variable that refers to an individual element within a list of like elements. The variable name is followed by the subscript value.

subtotal access field

In ReportWriter, a temporary field that gives you access to a field’s running total or complete total at any break level.


See parent class.

symbol table

An optional cross-reference table in a compiler listing that lists all data and constant definitions used in a routine.

symbol table offsets

An optional list in a compiler listing that includes all symbols referenced in the preceding routine with their offsets into the symbol table.

symbolic access table

A table created by the compiler and linker when you use the debug options. It contains controls that enable the debugger to perform source-level displays and look up variables by name.

symbolic string relational operator

The symbol representation of a string relational operator (==, !=, >, <, >=, and <=).


Synergy Configuration program, which can be accessed from the Synergy Control Panel in Windows Control Panel.

Synergy assembly

Refers to a .NET assembly that references Synergy methods.

Synergy component

A general term that can refer to a Synergy JAR file or assembly.

Synergy DBL daemon

A daemon that processes License Manager and Synergy message manager requests.

Synergy database

In xfODBC, a database comprising data files and repository files; the two sets of files together constitute a Synergy database.

Synergy DBMS

Synergy DBL’s proprietary I/O subsystem, which is a collection of Synergy database utilities and other components distributed with Professional Series. Synergy DBMS includes all four file types used by Synergy: ISAM, relative, sequential, and stream.

Synergy key file (.skf)

A file that contains the product keys for a license. You can use a Synergy key file to automatically configure all products for a workstation at once.

Synergy method

A Synergy function or subroutine that has been made available for use with xfNetLink. Synergy methods must be contained in an ELB or shared image and must be defined in the Synergy Method Catalog. Not to be confused with Synergy object-oriented methods.

Synergy Method Catalog (SMC)

Identifies the Synergy routines that you have prepared for remote calling with xfServerPlus. The SMC includes information such as the function or subroutine name, the ELB or shared image it is stored in, and the type and length of its parameters.

Synergy UI Toolkit Control Panel

A utility that enables you to translate or otherwise modify error and screen message text in Synergy/DE products.


An xfNetLink Java class that is instantiated in order to establish a connection between xfNetLink and xfServerPlus and to make calls to Synergy routines via xfServerPlus.

system catalog

A set of files generated by dbcreate and consisting of the individual table, user, group, column, index, segment, tag, and relation catalogs. The system catalog contains a “translation” of the Synergy database in a form that ODBC-enabled applications can understand.

system option

A parameter set by the DBLOPT environment variable.

system-supplied function

An intrinsic or external function that is supplied with Synergy DBL.

system-supplied subroutine

An external subroutine that is included in the Synergy runtime.


Used to refer to the level at which some environment variables must be set. A system-wide environment variable is available to all applications running on the system.


tab method

A subroutine called to process a tab in a dialog box.

tab set

A group of related windows, rendered in the metaphor of tabbed file folders. The tab set processing functions in UI Toolkit enable you to associate input windows or lists with the “tabs” of a tabbed dialog. Specific input window or list processing is handled using a method that you register with Toolkit.

tabbed dialog

A dialog box that is organized into more than one screen of fields, prompts, and buttons. Each screen is accessed by clicking the tab at the top of the screen.

table catalog

The GENESIS_TABLES.* files that contain file and structure information as well as data table access information.


The information that uniquely identifies a particular record structure (or record type) in a multi-record structure file. A structure tag can be either the record size or one or more particular fields in the structure and their associated comparison values.

tag file

A database that stores the information displayed for a routine when the user requests function help.


In Workbench, a method of expanding syntax automatically by generating predefined code into the editor. In Repository, a set of field characteristics that can be assigned to one or more field definitions or templates.

temporary field

In ReportWriter, a general term used to describe calculation, text, question, environment, and subtotal access fields. All temporary fields are created when the report is defined and reside in the temporary file.

temporary file

A report file that ReportWriter creates when you’ve created one or more temporary fields. It is available to the user as another report file from which fields can be selected for printing, sorting, subscripting, ranging, selecting, and use in expressions.

termcap file

The terminal data base file on UNIX. It contains a list of the terminal capability codes and their escape sequences.

terminal buffer

An internal storage area that temporarily holds data from the terminal.

terminating character

A character that ends input.

text entry

An entry in a window library that contains only compressed text.

text field

A multi-element alpha field that contains editable text. In ReportWriter, a temporary field that defines a static text string to be printed on report records.

text window

A special window that contains variable-length, editable text.

timestamp column

For SQL Server, this is analogous to the ROWID column. It uniquely identifies each row in a relational database by issuing a datetime stamp for the last moment data was committed in each row.

“to” key

The key in the structure which is being related to in a relation. The “to” key must be an access key.

“to” structure

The structure being related to in a relation.


A symbol or keyword that represents (and is replaced with) a name or other entity. Alternately, for licensing, a key that is maintained in License Manager to keep track of the licenses that are logged in. The token is obtained from the log-in process and used when logging out to ensure that the process that is logging out is authorized to do so.


A variable-size rectangle containing buttons, which are selected by clicking the mouse on the button face. The toolbar functions enable you to create and manipulate an application window toolbar. Toolbars provide an alternative method for invoking functions within an application; they are used as extensions to or replacements for the menu bar.


A record of how your program reached a line of code that encountered a nontrappable error (or a trappable error for which no error trapping was established).

trailing blank

A space at the end of an alpha data area.

trappable error

A warning error from which your program can recover unless you fail to trap it.

tree lock

A short-term lock applied on the index of an ISAM file during operations that access the index. This lock guarantees exclusive index access for the period required by the I/O statement.

true/false flags

A numeric value passed or returned to the routine. If the flag is zero (0), it is false. If the flag is any value other than zero, it is true.

truth value

Whether an expression is true or false.

type coercion

See coerced type.

type parameter

A data type placeholder for which an actual type will be substituted when a class member is used.


A design for a set of characters which defines the shape of each character. For example, Helvetica and Times Roman are typefaces. The two general categories of typeface are serif and sans serif.



A unique project and programmer number combination assigned by the UNIX operating system.

unary operator

An operator that acts on a single operand. See operator.


The automatic extraction of the type from its related object.

Universal Windows Platform (UWP)

An application architecture that enables applications that target it to run as Metro-style apps on any system or device with Windows 10 or Windows 10 Mobile. UWP is built into these operating systems and is a further development of the Windows Runtime (WinRT) model. Synergy .NET supports UWP through .NET Standard libraries. (Synergy .NET Standard libraries can be added to UWP applications written in other .NET languages such as C#.)

UNIX “what” string

A string defined by the .IDENT compiler directive. “What” strings are available on UNIX systems that have Source Code Control System (SCCS). Refer to your UNIX manual for more information about “what” strings.


In SQL Connection, to change data in a database. The terms “update” and “edit” are often used interchangeably.


Uniform Resource Indicator. The address technology from which URLs are created.

user catalog

The sodbc_users.* files that contain username, password, and group ID information.


A routine that enables you to customize and generalize the data filenames specified in a system catalog.

user data set

A one-dimensional alpha array that is associated with a window (rather than your program) and is maintained within the window data area by the window system. You completely control its parameters and contents.

user-defined function

A function that is not supplied by Synergy DBL and that begins with the FUNCTION statement.

user-defined subroutine

A subroutine that is not supplied by Synergy DBL and that begins with the SUBROUTINE statement.

user-overloadable routine

A routine that you write and register so that UI Toolkit or ReportWriter calls it automatically at the appropriate time. If you do not register your routine, the default implementation will be used.

utility methods

Refers to the standard methods that are included in every Synergy JAR file and assembly. These methods enable you to perform utility functions such as connecting, setting a time-out value, and running a debug session.


validation information

Defines what input is considered valid.

value type

A structure in the .NET Framework System namespace. A value type accesses data directly.


An identifier that refers to a field or record.

variable-length record

A record in a file in which records are not equivalent in length.

variable path

A way to reference a field or variable within a group.


The base type in the Synergy .NET runtime for traditional Synergy data types. A variable defined as VariantDesc can be set to any descriptor type: IntegerDesc, DecimalDesc, AlphaDesc, etc.


The portion of a text or input window that is visible to the user. See also display area.

view length

A setting that determines the width of a field.


A method qualifier that allows the method to be overridden. Abstract and override methods imply virtual.

volatile handle

A dynamic memory handle that goes away along with the routine activation level.


The SQL OpenNet connection manager. For more information, see Configuring Connectivity Series.



A setting in the debugger. When you set a watchpoint for a variable, the debugger breaks on the line that changes the variable.


A character that enables an operating system or program to perform functions on multiple files with related names, without your having to specify each file by its full name. Wildcard characters are “?” (or “%” on OpenVMS) and “*”.


A portion of the screen committed to a specific purpose, such as a menu, a bordered display, or a pop-up help message. Windows can help you enhance your user interface.

window area

The size of the entire window.

window field

A portion of a window defined by row, column, length, and contents; and whose contents are visible.

window library

An ISAM file with a specific format to which Synergy/DE windows are saved.

windowing system

A group of external subroutines (referred to as the Synergy windowing API) that control the creation, display, and maintenance of windows and their attributes.

working rendition scheme

The scheme stored with a blank key in a rendition file. It is used as the default scheme when a scheme is not specified in one of the rendition subroutine calls. See also rendition scheme.

working storage

A section of memory allocated to hold immediate results. Examples of working variables held in working storage are loop-control variables, internal processing flags, and variables to hold transitional results.


A group of related projects in Workbench.


To automatically move a word to the beginning of the next line if it doesn’t fit on the current line.



An external subroutine or the Synergy DBL statement that calls an external subroutine.

XCALL interface

Refers to ReportWriter’s external subroutine interface, which is used to access ReportWriter from your application.


A package of components that enables you to make your Synergy data accessible to third-party applications. xfODBC includes the xfODBC driver and two utilities, the xfODBC Database Administrator (DBA) program and dbcreate, used to create system catalogs from your Synergy repository definitions.


Extensible Markup Language. XML is a syntax, developed by the World Wide Web Consortium, for creating your own markup language. It is a simple text stream that contains text and markup codes (tags).


zoned numeric

A traditional DIBOL data storage mechanism.